Date of Award


Degree Name

PhD Leadership Studies

Dissertation Committee

Afsaneh Nahavandi, PhD, Chairperson;Fred J. Galloway, PhD, Member; Juan F. Roche, PhD, Member; Secil Bayraktar, PhD, Member


GLOBE, Turkey, leadership, culture, social change


Starting in 1995, the GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness) project has conducted a comprehensive study of cultural values and leadership ideals of 62 countries. GLOBE has identified nine cultural and six leadership dimensions, examined the relationship between cultural values and leadership ideals, grouped countries into clusters, and presented culturally derived leadership ideals. According to the 1995 GLOBE findings, Turkey fits in the Middle Eastern cluster with its corresponding expectations regarding leadership ideals. However, in the past thirty years, Turkey has undergone dramatic social, economic and political changes that may have affected ideals of leadership. The goal of this study was to explore whether such changes may have impacted both cultural dimensions and leadership ideals.

To that end, this study replicated the GLOBE methodology regarding cultural values and leadership ideals and further supplemented it with interviews to explore the possible reasons for value and ideal shifts. In a first phase, using GLOBE surveys, 271 participants identified Turkish cultural dimensions and 237 participants identified Turkish ideals of leadership. In a second phase, interviews with six respondents explored the social, political, and economic factors that may have contributed to changes in cultural and leadership ideals.

Results show no significant shifts in Turkish culture since 1995 although four out of nine cultural dimensions, Uncertainty Avoidance, Performance Orientation, Institutional Collectivism, and Humane Orientation practices, shifted down one level. For the ideals of leadership, participants indicated a higher value placed on Autonomous leadership and Participative leadership and a lower value on Team-Oriented leadership when compared to 1995.

Further analyses show that women endorsed Self-Protective leadership to a higher extent than men and that older participants more than younger ones endorsed Charismatic/Value-Based, Team-Oriented, Humane-Oriented and Autonomous leadership. Finally, respondents with more education endorsed Team-Oriented leadership and Charismatic/Value-Based leadership to a higher extent. The interview results further reinforce the survey findings indicating some, but no drastic cultural shifts.

The study’s findings are discussed in terms of the impact of social and political changes on culture and leadership ideals and the speed at which culture may change. The implications for further GLOBE research are also discussed.

Document Type

Dissertation: Open Access


Leadership Studies