Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Nursing Science


caregivers, elderly, Filipinos, nursing, women


The purpose of this study was to examine and analyze parent care as experienced by middle-aged Filipino women, particularly those who have resided in the United States for over 20 years. There is little information known about this topic; therefore, a grounded theory study design was utilized. Open-ended, semi-structured interviews of 29 Filipino women were conducted in English and/or Tagalog, and at times a combination of both languages. Data were transcribed verbatim from the audio-recorded interviews and analyzed using a constant comparative method of analytic induction. Field notes were kept and patterns of observation were analyzed according to their significance. Data from the study revealed five interrelated categories: Giving Back, Taking Action, Sacrificing Self, Balancing, and Searching Out. Giving Back is the causal condition for self commitment in order to provide care. It forms the foundations and reasons for caring behavior. Taking Action is the context within which the implementation of giving back is conducted. It demonstrates how family members manage to care for aging parents. Sacrificing Self encompasses the meaning of a caring behavior. Sentiments such as affection, understanding, and respect emerged as prevalent themes to define care; and that providing care to an aging parent is to sacrifice oneself despite all tribulations. Balancing represents the action/interaction strategies in response to Sacrificing Self. Searching Out is the consequence of Sacrificing Self. It is reflective of the adult children's perceptions and vision of their own aging. The interrelationships of these categories has led to the identification of Sacrificing Self. Sacrificing Self details the process of understanding the caregiver in the context of the Filipino culture. It incorporates the conditions, contexts, strategies, and consequences of the adult children's caring behavior. In the process of caring, two contextual dimensions evolved: caring for partially dependent parent (PDP), and caring for totally dependent parent (TDP). These dimensions are characterized by different sets of patterns and behaviors related to care of aging parents. In addition, strengths and difficulties of caregiving were identified. The findings of this study have implications for nursing practice, nursing education, nursing research, and policy legislations. The major implication is the need for culturally sensitive formal support systems in order to provide respite care opportunities for Filipino women who are caring for the aging parents in the United States.

Document Type

Dissertation: Open Access



Included in

Nursing Commons