Date of Award


Degree Name

EdD Doctor of Education

Dissertation Committee

Susan M. Zgliczynski, PhD, Director; Philip O. Hwang, PhD; Mary Jo Abascal-Hildebrand, EdD


bayanihan, Delphi study, culture, Filipino-Americans, Leadership studies, minority & ethnic groups, perspective, qualitative, San Diego (California)


The majority of the texts and other materials on leadership have been written from the perspective of people from Western culture. A number of scholars have called attention to this lack of a more diverse literature, inquiring as to the reasons why academicians primarily offer leadership literature that has a predominantly Western culture perspective. Since social and political contexts represent diverse cultural views, leadership literature should also reflect that diversity. This issue is particularly important in the San Diego area for Filipino-Americans because of their increasing numbers and active participation in social and political endeavors. The absence of culturally and ethically diverse literature on leadership provides scholars with a limited view of the leadership theories and principles of non-Western societies. Further, this lack of non-Western literature reinforces the notion that persons in other cultures have not developed leadership perspectives, and a continued absence of leadership literature authored by people from other cultures will only prolong this cultural bias in the academic environment. This research study of leadership was conducted to determine the perspectives of Filipino-Americans. A qualitative research approach, the Delphi technique, was employed. An attempt was made to examine how the panelists view leadership and integrate these leadership perspectives in social and political settings. The subjects were selected from Americans of Filipino descent from various fields of endeavor who are currently holding or have previously held leadership roles. Three Delphi rounds were used to obtain consensuses on the most dominant Filipino-American leadership perspectives and leadership characteristic styles or traits. The study revealed a culturally specific Filipino-American leadership philosophy known as "bayanihan." Bayanihan is a leadership concept that may be defined as a process among people who have a shared vision to achieve their intended purposes of improving their community or society. Further, the study revealed characteristic leadership styles or traits unique to Filipino-American leaders. These traits are "bahala na," "hiya or hiya hiya," "kanya kanya," "kumpadre," "ningas cogon," "pakikisama," and "utang na loob." At the end, this researcher made specific recommendations for Leadership Educators and Leadership Practitioners to consider undertaking as well as recommendations for further research.

Document Type

Dissertation: Open Access