This Comment will show how the Caroline doctrine came to exist, argue that no real doctrine was created as to an imminence requirement, and show that what is known today as the true Caroline doctrine is really obsolete international law and not a current standard by which to judge the legality of a state's use of force in self-defense.
Maria B. Occelli,
"Sinking" the Caroline: Why the Caroline Doctrine's Restrictions on Self-Defense Should Not Be Regarded as Customary International Law,
San Diego Int'l L.J.
Available at: https://digital.sandiego.edu/ilj/vol4/iss1/16