UNCLOS III has provided LLS with a unique forum to express their need for enforceable rights to share in the use and exploitation of the ocean. The Conference has declared a policy of treating seabed resources as the heritage of all nations. Nevertheless, it is likely that economic and political pressures will prevent the conference from adopting any provisions which substantially benefit LLS. Parts 2 and 3 of the RSNT, rather than adding to the rights of LLS, continue to endorse the broad authority of coastal States. In fact, the provisions of the EEZ contained in Part 2 represent a disadvantage to LLS compared to the less restrictive provisions of the Geneva Continental Shelf Convention. Because of their lack of political, economic, and military leverage, many LLS are dependent upon potential worldwide agreement to attain enforceable rights with respect to the sea. The probable failure of UNCLOS III to accord such rights will foreclose these nations' last chance to partake in the common heritage of mankind.
UNCLOS III: Last Chance for Landlocked States?,
San Diego L. Rev.
Available at: https://digital.sandiego.edu/sdlr/vol14/iss3/9