This article examines the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches to international regulation of the exploitation of ferromangense nodules. Some of the approaches considered are licensing of an independent operator by a UN Seabed Authority, a "contract for services" alternative, a joint venture arrangement, or direct exploitation. The author claims that effects on the economies of developing nations, the transfer of technology, and the location of land-based processing plants and the control of distribution of metals from nodules need not be considered as critical factors in the choice of approaches to the regulation of deep-ocean mining.
F. L. La Que,
Different Approaches to International Regulation of Exploitation of Deep-Ocean Ferromanganese Nodules,
San Diego L. Rev.
Available at: https://digital.sandiego.edu/sdlr/vol15/iss3/6