San Diego Law Review

Library of Congress Authority File


Document Type



This Article examines the legal framework for regulating activities in the ocean and how this has affected the management of coastal and marine ecosystems. The author argues that, historically, international law rules have hindered attempts to establish comprehensive approaches to controls over marine uses. The author suggests that recent developments in the establishment of both a treaty and the customary law of the sea may provide an opportunity for the emergence of new international norms requiring total ecosystem management regimes. The author concludes with suggested options for multi-national attempts to total ecosystem management and to secure its establishment as a basic tenet of the customary international law of the sea.