Date of Award


Degree Name

PhD Leadership Studies

Dissertation Committee

Lea Hubbard, PhD, Chair; Hans Peter Schmitz, PhD, Member; Leslie Boozer, EdD, JD, Member


school reform; schedule changes; 4x4 schedule; teacher resistance


The four-by-four (4x4) schedule—a type of high school block schedule—presents promising prospects for improving teaching and learning. Using a qualitative, single case study methodology, I investigated a school transitioning from a traditional six-period schedule to a 4x4 schedule during its 2nd and 3rd year of implementation. The study aimed to understand the factors that influenced the transition, the stakeholders’ responses to the decision, and the factors that influenced their responses. Some of the main considerations that motivated the decision included the desire to provide more opportunities within the school day for students to meet A/G college eligibility requirements, allow students to pursue their course interests, and career readiness objectives. The most important factors impacting stakeholders’ responses to the decision were the top-down nature of the decision, a lack of communication concerning the rationale behind the shift, and a lack of meaningful professional development support for implementation of the reform. These factors led to mistrust and teacher resistance. In light of these findings, this study provides recommendations to improve the decision-making processes in the context of school reform.

Document Type

Dissertation: Open Access


Leadership Studies