Date of Award


Degree Name

PhD Nursing

Dissertation Committee

Cynthia D. Connelly, PhD, RN, FAAN, Chairperson; Jane M. Georges, PhD, RN; Kathy Shadle James, DNSC, FNP-BC


adolescents, Intrapersonal environment, nursing, promotional enviroment, southern California, Thai-Americans, Tobacco-use


This study explores tobacco-use related environment, intrapersonal factors, and smoking initiation in Thai-American adolescents aged 10 to 16 living in Southern California. A purposive sample of 217 youth was recruited from seven Thai-community centers located in four counties of Southern California: The sample was fairly evenly distributed by gender with female (54.5%) and almost three quarters (70.9%) were born in the United States (70.9%). Age ranged from 10 to 16 years, with the mean age 12.71 years old (SD =1.835); 27% reported age of 11. Data were collected using the 97 item Teen Tobacco-Use Questionnaire. Findings indicated 12 participants (6.3%) reported ever trying a cigarette and 2 (1.1%) reported smoking daily. Approximately half (n = 91, 48.9%) of the sample had been exposed to family smoking, 34 (18%) reported having at least one closet friend who smoked and 15 (7.93%) having friends who used chewing tobacco, snuff, of dip. 167 (88.4%) were exposed to smoking advertisings at least some of the time from at least one source. Interpersonal factors included self-esteem subscales of self, family, school, and sensation seeking. Slightly more than half of the sample reported a high level of family self-esteem, but a low level of other self-esteem subscales and sensation seeking. Gender, age group, and school grade level were statistically significant different in exposure to tobacco-use related environment and intrapersonal environment. Exposure to tobacco-use related environment was positively correlated with belief and attitude toward smoking, intention to smoke, and smoking initiation. Family, school, and friend self-esteem subscales were inversely correlated with intention to smoke and smoking initiation, in contrast sensation seeking was positively correlated with intention to smoke and smoking initiation. Intention to smoke was statistically significantly predictive on smoking initiation. Belief and attitude toward smoking increased the odds while school self-esteem subscale decreased the odds of intention to smoke. Findings suggested tobacco-use promotional environment influence intention of smoking and smoking initiation. On the other hand, intrapersonal environment play a role as a protective factor among the adolescents in this study.

Document Type

Dissertation: Open Access



Included in

Nursing Commons