Date of Award


Degree Name

EdD Doctor of Education

Dissertation Committee

Susan M. Zgliczynski, PhD, Director; Johanna S. Hunsaker, PhD; Edward Kujawa Jr., PhD


federal civil service, industrial facility, leadership construct, Leadership studies, organizational members, San Diego (California), variations


Popular literature and much of the research reported in recognized journals imply that all members of an organization subscribe to the same ideas about leadership. However, a few authorities believe the research findings may result from test instruments based on a single view of leadership. Accurately identifying members' views of leadership is important because these views help shape behavior and expectations within the group. Differing views of leadership may also be a root cause of conflict among organizational members. This research used published definitions, descriptions, and measures of leadership to establish ten elements that seem to comprise the leadership construct. These elements are scope, leader personality and behavior, the role of the followers, use of organizational authority, leader and follower relationship, effects of gender, cultural impacts, ethical considerations, recognizing leadership, and duration. A fifty-nine item survey included questions about each of these ten elements. Survey participants indicated their agreement or disagreement with each item using a four point Likert scale. Two open-ended questions allowed participants to (1) add any elements of leadership they believed were missing from the survey, and (2) indicate how they recognized when leadership was occurring. The development sample consisted of 358 federal civil service participants employed at an industrial facility in San Diego, CA. Subjects' organizational positions ranged from executive manager to equipment maintenance. Test subjects' support for survey items showed substantial variation. Participants' support for items ranged from 4% to 98% with a relatively even distribution in each 10% frequency category. Reliability analysis and factor analysis produced a sixteen factor, fifty-four item leadership scale with adequate reliability that accounted for 61% of the leadership construct and included the ten researcher developed leadership elements. The sixteen factors were condensed to nine factors. This fifty-four item, nine factor scale may be useful to practitioners and researchers interested in a quantitative comparison of the differing views of leadership held by members of an organization.

Document Type

Dissertation: Open Access