Date of Award


Degree Name

EdD Doctor of Education

Dissertation Committee

Mary M. Williams, EdD, Chair; Edward F. DeRoche, PhD, Member; Fred J. Galloway, EdD, Member


academic achievement, attitudes, behaviors, Canada, children & youth, curriculum, elementary schools, gender, self-esteem, teaching


The purpose of this study is to determine if there was a significant difference in measures of self-esteem between elementary school students to whom specific values were formally taught in their school as part of the curriculum and those who did not receive such instruction. The setting for the study was a school district in Canada that had identified sixteen values through community consensus. The district developed curriculum and lessons for the teaching of these values. A quasi-experimental research design was utilized. The treatment group was taught values as a formal part of their curriculum for a period of four years, in grades four through seven. The control group did not receive the formal teaching of values. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the post treatment relationship between the independent variables (grade point average, citizenship scores, gender, and group membership), and the dependent variable (self-esteem). Self-esteem was measured by way of the Student Self-Esteem Inventory (Reasoner and Gilberts, 1992). The best fitting regression model was employed to estimate pre-treatment measures of self-esteem for both groups, allowing change in self-esteem to be calculated. Regression analysis was again used to see what relationships existed between the change in self-esteem and change in the independent variables. Results showed no treatment effect, but they did show a statistically significant, positive relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement, and between self-esteem and a combined measure of academic achievement, behavior, and attitude, termed success in school. Results also showed a statistically significant relationship between self-esteem and gender, with girls having slightly lower self-esteem than boys. The findings indicate that further research is needed in the area of classroom climate and teacher modeling, which have been shown in other research studies to have a positive relationship on self-esteem and student behavior.

Document Type

Dissertation: Open Access