Date of Award


Degree Name

EdD Doctor of Education

Dissertation Committee

Fred J. Galloway, EdD, Chair; Kenneth Galea’i, PhD, Member; Daniel M. Miller, PhD, Member


Guam, hierarchical multiple Regression analysis, Leadership studies, perception, principal effectiveness, public schools, qualitative, school administration, secondary schools, teacher morale


For more than a decade, the public schools on Guam have suffered from low student test scores, high turnover rates and low levels of teacher morale. Although there may be many explanations for this persistent problem, an important part of any solution is improving the overall level of teacher morale, which of course, can be influenced in many ways by the actions of the principal. In an effort to determine both the level of teacher morale among secondary school teachers on Guam as well as the factors that may help explain it, including the perceived level of principal effectiveness, this study collected data from 250 secondary school teachers on Guam using the Teacher Outlook and Perceptions Survey and the Audit of Principal Effectiveness. Results of the hierarchical multiple regression analysis suggests that both demographic factors and the perceptions of the principal's effectiveness were important determinants of teachers' morale levels. Specifically, teachers at year-round schools and those with emergency or special contracts had higher levels of morale, as did those with principals that were perceived as effective. However, Caucasian teachers had lower morale than non-Caucasians, and middle school teachers had lower morale than high school teachers. Overall morale levels were slightly less than 5 on a 1–7 scale. Recommendations for future research include further investigation into the determinants of teacher morale, with a specific focus on the importance of the teachers' certification status and ethnic heritage. In addition, a qualitative approach may be necessary to help understand some of the more nuanced reasons why teacher morale levels on Guam have consistently failed to improve.

Document Type

Dissertation: Open Access