San Diego International Law Journal


Baylee Swidler

Library of Congress Authority File


Document Type



This Article will examine how the IOC framework has developed over the years, focusing specifically on where it is now, and how it affects transgender athletes, cisgender athletes (athletes whose biological sex matches their gender identity), and future athletes. Players worldwide are affected differently by the decisions of each International Federation, depending on whether fairness or inclusion is prioritized. Sport at lower levels can be significantly influenced by the independent regulations of each sport federation, even for younger athletes. My proposal, rather than simply stating that reform is necessary after the implementation of the IOC 2021 framework, is instead, to introduce specific legislation with a uniform regulation to promote fairness and inclusion for athletes.