San Diego Law Review


Library of Congress Authority File


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Promise Enforcement is my original approach to the development of affordable housing. Promise Enforcement, as a system, includes three components: (1) contextual thinking; (2) valuing individuality, and (3) comprehensive responsibility. Contextual thinking involves a sense of environmental, historical, and geographic context. Valuing individuality allows residents of public housing to express themselves as unique individuals. Comprehensive responsibility involves a complete understanding of the costs and benefits of affordable housing. The theory was inspired in part by the work of Austrian activist, artist, and architect Friedensreich Hundertwasser and the writings of French social contract theorist Jean-Jacques Rousseau. My article that introduced the theory of Promise Enforcement compared and contrasted it with the United States federal government’s HOPE VI affordable housing program, proposing ways in which each of that initiative’s three major components, (1) New Urbanist architecture, (2) income mixing, and (3) lease enforcement and community and supportive services, could be modified to comport with Promise Enforcement.

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