Date of Award

2020-05-23

Degree Name

PhD Nursing

Dissertation Committee

Cynthia D. Connelly, PhD, RN, FAAN,Chairperson; Jane M. Georges, PhD, RN Member; Semira Semino-Asaro, PhD, RN Member

Keywords

pregnancy, opioid use disorder, opioid misuse, treatment, barriers

Abstract

Purpose: To identify barriers and facilitators to opioid use treatment and recovery services among pregnant and nonpregnant women who misuse opioids.

Background: Over 130 Americans die daily after overdosing on opioids. Women have not been immune from opioid use disorders (OUDs), with a 4-fold increase from 1999-2010. The prevalence of opioid use among pregnant women increased from 1.5 per 1,000 hospital deliveries to 6.5. Although the annual National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) has provided information on risk factors for OUD related to socioeconomic and demographic factors, no studies using this data have identified barriers to opioid use treatment among pregnant and nonpregnant women.

Specific aims: (1) describe demographic characteristics (age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, health insurance, employment, income, geographic location, and treatment setting), clinical characteristics (health status, mental health status, and substance use), and opioid use treatment and recovery services among pregnant and nonpregnant women who misuse opioids, (2) examine the relationships among demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, perceived need for treatment, and facilitators/barriers to opioid use treatment and recovery services among pregnant and nonpregnant women who misuse opioids, (3) identify factors associated with increased odds of opioid use treatment among pregnant women who misuse opioids.

Method: A cross-sectional correlational study using 2016 to 2018 NSDUH data. Sample included 122 pregnant and 3305 nonpregnant women who misused opioids. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis examined the variables between the groups of women.

Results:The sample (n=3427) women who misused opioids, 67.3% were 18-25 years old and 64.8% were non-Hispanic white. Both groups worked full time (36%), earned between $20,000 and $49,000 per year (34%), and never married (66.5%). Significant associations were noted among; age (χ2=25.406, p=

Implications: Study findings indicate 3.3% of pregnant women and 1.8% of nonpregnant women who misuse opioids perceive they have a need to obtain treatment. Further research is necessary to explore the construct of perceived need in this population, as well as, strategies to increase engagement.

Document Type

Dissertation: Open Access

Department

Nursing

Available for download on Monday, May 09, 2022

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